• The Exhition The Everlasting Flame (11th october-14th december 2013, Brunei Gallery, SOAS, London) shows a nice sample of Avestan manuscripts usually hosted in the British Library
  • The text of the Yasna ī Rapihwin ceremony is already available in ADA, vid. complete ceremonies"
  • The text of the Wištāsp Yašt ceremony is already available in ADA, vid. complete ceremonies"
Universidad de Salamanca Junta de Castilla y León Casa asia Ministerio de ciencia e innovación


Gledner's edition of the Avesta edited the Avestan performative texts of the Zoroastian liturgies as they appear in the Pahlavi manuscripts. But these manuscripts do not include the complete text of the ceremonies but for the Yasna. For the rest of the ceremonies they include only the texts that need a translation because they do not appear in the Yasna. They do not include the complete performative text of the ceremony. Usually it is assumed that adding the texts edited by Geldner as additions or variations of the Wisperad to the Yasna text it is possible to reconstruct the shape of the Wisperad ceremony. But this is not true. The Wisperad ceremony knows much more additions and variations than the additions included in the Pahlavi manuscripts and edited by Geldner.

Furthermore, all ceremonies, including Yasna, show variation at certain places. The most important ones are the dates and the dedicatory. But there are further changes like the different shape of the Frauuarane in the different ceremonies, the presence or absence of Y23.1-4 or Y26. These differences appear in the manuscripts and therefore we have to note them when indexing the manuscripts. For this reason, I have created a new system for numbering the variants and additional texts that do not appear in Geldner's edition of the Avesta. Since I don't want to duplicate numbering without necessity I have kept when possible Geldner's numbering.

For the problem of the different variants of the liturgy s. A. Cantera, "Rituales, manuscritos y ediciones del Avesta: Hacia una nueva edición de los textos avésticos de la liturgia larga", Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Iranología 1 (2010) pp.28-42 pdf

In the case of the Wisperad I have change Geldner's numbering of the additions and variations, but in order to avoid confusions, the new numbering is referred as VrS (Wisperad-Sade) and not as Vr. When searching our date base both numbering systems can be used. Since VrS14.6 corresponds to Vr7.4, a search for Vr/.4 will show as well the folios with the index VrS14.6 and viceversa.

Furthermore, the small variations of the Wsieprad and Widewdad ceremonies are also to be noted. The Frauuarane, e.g., is different in the the widewdad and in the Yasna and Wisperad ceremonies. Therefore, we have to distinguish it in the numbering too. Thus the Frauuarane in Y14.4 appears in the Widewdad Sade manuscripts indexed as VS14.1 (the first variant particular of the Widewdad in the 14th chapter). However, a search for Y14.4 will show VS14.1 too and vice versa.

The new numbering, the structure of the ceremonies and the equivalences are presented in this synoptical table

Note: the conversion of the manuscripts indexed according to the old numbering to the new numbering is in process. Don't wonder if you find for a while both systems. In any case, since the search shows all the convenient results independently of the numbering used, it shouldn't be a big problem.